Procter & Gamble ( P & G ) is a multinational consumer goods. It is now among the largest companies in the world by capitalization of the market. With presence in over 160 countries , produces and distributes well-known firms such as Gillette , Duracell , Ariel , Tampax and over 300 brands of daily consumables.
The Procter & Gamble was founded in Cincinnati , Ohio by an English immigrant named William Procter and an Irish immigrant named James Gamble . Both men had come to Cincinnati separately and founded successful businesses, Procter and candle maker and Gamble as a maker of soaps. After marrying sisters, formed a partnership in 1837. At that time, Cincinnati, known as “Porkopolis,” was the production center’s largest meat, allowing cheap access to animal fat – the basic raw material in the manufacture of candles and soaps. This attracted many new stakeholders, so that by 1845 P & G had to compete with 14 other local manufacturers of name brands without soap and candles. To differentiate from other P & G embarked on an aggressive investment strategy of building one of the biggest factories in the 1850s despite rumors of an impending civil war. During the war, P & G operated during the day and night to supply the Union soldiers , and by the end of the war sales had more than quintupled to over $ 1 million. When the soldiers returned home carrying high quality products, distinguished by their characteristic packing of moon and stars, P & G quickly developed a national reputation.
Since its inception, P & G focused on product innovation. In 1879, Gamble’s son, James Norris Gamble McLean, a chemist by training, developed Ivory, the first American soap comparable to the finest imported European soaps. James transformed the production processes of P & G soap – and candles – an art to a science seeking help from teachers of Chemistry. Ivory, first sold nationally in 1882 for its purity, P & G transformed into a producer of premium brands. A large-scale production of Ivory began in a huge new plant Ivorydale in 1887 to meet the rapidly growing domestic demand. P & G also innovated by establishing a direct sales force in 1919, eliminating the intermediary of wholesalers. Direct distribution from factory to store to improved understanding of P & G’s retail customers and allowed the departments of the company in 1924.
Procter & Gamble also helped introduce the novels, known in English as “Soap Operas” in 1933. The novel “Guiding Light”, first launched into the air as a radio series for 15 minutes in 1937 and is still produced by P & G Productions appearing daily on CBS . During the 1920 brand managers were encouraged to be entrepreneurs and manage their brands as individual companies. Created a competitive brand management in 1931, formally allowing each brand manager to capture different consumer segments. The organization began forming around product lines for business decisions faster and more oriented to customers were made by the brand managers at lower levels of the corporate hierarchy. In 1943, P & G created its first division by product category, the departments of pharmacy products, focused on a growing line of products for personal care. Tide, a revolutionary synthetic detergent launched in 1946, was developed against the wishes of top management through a 5-year secret program known as Project X. Senior management finally launched the project and Tide captured the market leadership in just 4 years and still remains 50 years later.
In Spain, Procter & Gamble began his career in the 60′s with the detergent factory in Mataro , which mainly manufactured its flagship Ariel , with that shocking but effective campaign, “And who has told you?” then launch the Fairy and other products … In the 70 transferred the seat and the general direction of the company in Madrid , built in Cordoba the second factory.